11/29/2013

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM in HUMAN



Blood Circulatory Organs
Blood Circulatory Organs in human consists of heart and blood vessels that contain blood
                - heart
                - blood vessels
Heart

Function : blood  pumping device  & the centre of blood circulatory system (from the heart blood flows to the entire part of body)
The heart consist of 4 chambers:
                - left atrium
                - right atrium
                - left ventricle
                - rigth ventricle
The ventricle wall is thicker than atrium wall because have to work harder to pump blood to all parts of body
There is valve between atrium and ventricle, function to prevent for blood doesn’t flow back to atrium
The cardiac consist of three layer :
                - epicardium (outer layer)
                - myocardium (cardiac muscle)
                - Endocardium (inner layer)
The heart is covered with 2 layers of membranes called pericardium
The heart work’s
The atrium expand, the blood enters the atrium
The atrium contract, the blood the blood from the atrium enters ventricles
The ventricle contract, blood comes out from the ventricle
Heartbeat occurs if the cardiac muscle contracts.
Cardiac muscle works by contraction and ralaxation.
When cardiac muscle contracts, the heart is budding so its produces high pressure called Systole (120 ventricle contract)
When the cardiac muscles in relaxation, the heart develops so happens refilling og blood called Diastole (80 ventricle relax)
Blood vessels
Function : as canals for flowing place of blood from the entire body back to the heart.
There are 3 types of blood vessels :
                - Artery (Pembuluh nadi)
                - Vein (Pembuluh balik)
                - Cappilary (Pembuh kapiler)
Differences
Artery
According to its size, is separated into 3 :
Aorta (The largest artery)
That is the artery that leaves cardiac left ventricle goes to the entire part of the body
Artery (smaller size than aorta)
Vessels with blood that is rich of O2 so it leaves heart by carrying clean blood and circulates its blood to the entire part of the body
Arteriole (smallest size)
Vein
The vein consist of
Body vein
That carries blood that is rich of CO2
                - superior vein cava (which carries the blood from the head and upper limb)
                - inferior vein cava (that carries blood from the body and below lower limb)
Pulmonary vein
That carries blood from lung that is rich O2
Capillary
Is the smoothest vessel and consist of 1 layer of cell.
That relates between artery and vein
In this blood vessels is circulated to the cells and burning waste from cells is transported
Blood
Plasma
55 % of our blood is plasma
Function : as transportof nutrients to all parts of body
Plasma : 90% is water and 10 % is :
                - protein (fibrinogen, albumin, prothombin, globulin)
                - mineral salts (NaCl, K, Ca, PO4, … )
                - food essences (glucose, amino acids, fatty acid, glycerol, vitamins)
                - enzyme, hormone, antybody, and antigens
                - the remian of metabolims (urea & uric acid)
                - gaseosus (O2 & CO2)
Blood cells
45 % our blood is blood cells
Consist of :
                - erythrocyte
                - leucocyte
                - thrombocyte
Erythrocyte
A flat-round shape & biconcave
Have no nuclues
± 5 juta/mm3 in man
                ± 4 juta/mm3 in woman
Formed in red marrow, lymph, liver
Live  in ± 120 days old
Has a Hemoglobin to bind oxygen – HbO2
Will be damage in the liver & lymph
                - hemin -> bile pigment (bilirubin)
                - globin
                - Fe
Function :
                - to transport oxygen
Leucocyte
Shape is irregular
Can move amoeboid (like amoebas)
Can pass through the walls of capilaries blood vessels, is called Diapendesis
Have nucleus
± 6000 – 9000 /mm3
Formed in red marrow the spleen, lymph glands
Five kinds :
                - neutrophils
                - eosinophil
                - basophil
                - monocyte
                - lymphochyte
Function :
To kill  disease germ by eating them and forms antobody to protect body
Thrombochyte
Have an irregular shape and lack nucleus
± 200.000-300.000/mm3
Formed in red marrow
Live  in ± 8 days old
Function :
To blood clothing
Blood type
Aglutinogen (antigen) : zat yang digumpalkan
Antigen yang terdapat di dalam sel darah merah yang peka terhadap aglutinasi/penggumpalan darah
Aglutinin (antibodi) : zat yang menggumpalkan
Antibodi yang terdapat dalam plasma darah (Serum)/substansi yang menyebabkan aglutinasi sel
Jika darah diuji dengan serum aglutinin A menggumpal, maka kemungkinan gol darah orang tsb adalah A atau AB. Jika darah tidak menggumpal, kemungkinan adalah gol darah B atau O
Jika darah diuji dengan serum aglutinin B menggumpal, maka kemungkinan gol darah orang tsb adalah B atau AB. Jika darah tidak menggumpal, kemungkinan adalah gol darah A atau O
Donor universal : O
The person who donate his blood
Recipient universal : AB
The person who receives blood
Blood circulation
Blood circulation in human is closed blood circulation (blood always circulates inside vessels)
The human circulatory system is called a double cyrculation (the blood passes through the heart twice for each complete of the body)
                - small blood circulation
                - large blood circulation
Small
The heart (right ventricle) – the lung – the heart (left atrium)
Large
The heart (left ventricle) – all part of the body – the heart (right atrium)

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